Glossary

Note: These definitions are specifically tailored to show how these terms are used in the fruit industry.

Aseptic

Method of processing which kills all microorganisms. Sterile product is packed in a sterile package in sterile environment.Aseptic product is microbiologically stable. Freezing is not necessary for aseptic products, except to maintain color and flavor.

Antioxidant

A molecule that neutralizes free radicals, which are a cellular by-product of metabolism that is believed to contribute to aging. Antioxidants have been shown to prevent numerous diseases such as cancers and heart disease. One very potent family of antioxidants is called polyphenols and is found in a variety of fruits and vegetables. Many berries are especially high in this.

Anthocyanins

Water soluble pigments found only in plants. Over 500 different types are believed to exist, ranging in color from red to blue. Anthocyanins act as powerful antioxidants, helping to protect plants from UV damage. Antioxidant-anthocyanins have gained attention recently with many reports published on the benefits of consuming red wine and fruits such as pomegranate.

BIB Bag-in-Box.
Brix

Used to describe the sugar concentration of a fruit puree or juice. It is the percent of sugar (dextrose) or percent of soluble solids. Measured at 20° Celsius, using a refractometer. Soluble components with refractive indexes (such as citric acid) affect accuracy.

CFSAN

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. A division of the FDA.

Catalyst

A substance that initiates an event, but is not changed by the event.

Concentration

Process which removes water, usually through evaporation.

Deciduous Fruit

Fruit that comes from trees or plants that shed their leaves or other foliage seasonally. Examples include apple and peach.

Dehydration

Same as drying.Process of removing water, usually with heat or through osmosis. See process description under Technology of Dehydrated Fruit.

Drum

Approximately 55 gallon barrel, generally containing 51-55 gallons. Usually 70-80 drums are shipped per load.

Enzyme

A complex protein, which is produced by a cell.Enzymes are biological catalysts.

Essence

Component of fruit juice that boils at lower than 212°F. This contains aromatic/fragrant compounds including alcohol.

Essential Oil

Also called ethereal oil or volatile oil. Oils obtained from various parts of a plant.

Extract The product resulting from extraction.
Extraction

Process of removing part of a product by using chemical or mechanical means, such as distillation, evaporation, or pressure.

FDA Food and Drug Administration.
Freeze-Dried

Method of preservation, which maintains more flavor than other methods. Product is rapidly frozen, and then all water is removed through sublimation by drying in a vacuum.

GMO Genetically Modified Organism.
HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. System used to ensure food safety.

IQF

Individually Quick Frozen. Method of freezing product, which allows product to maintain maximum amount of flavor and shape. Pieces are frozen while separated, resulting in a free-flow product rather than a block of frozen product.

Kosher

Food prepared in a way that fulfills the requirements of Jewish law.
LTL

Less Than Load. Term for shipping a small amount of product that does not fill an entire truck-load. This is an expensive way to ship.

Load

Also called a truckload or container load.It is the amount of product that will fit in one truckload or ocean freight container. This is usually 800-850 cartons based upon either weight or volume or 70- 80 drums (barrels) at approximately 55 gallons each.

NFC

Not-From-Concentrate. A single-strength product that has never been concentrated. The lack of heat in processing helps to maintain the essences and oils of the fruit for better flavor and nutrition.

NOP

National Organic Program.Program created by the USDA to establish national organic standards including standards for growing, producing, importing and exporting products. They accredit organizations to inspect farms, producers, and handlers for organic certification. Foreign companies can also receive accreditation from the NOP if they meet all requirements.

NOS National Organic Standards. These standards were developed by the NOP and implemented in 2002 under the authority of the U.S. Congress. The standards state that in order for a product to be labeled as organic, all parties who handle the product must be certified through the NOP.

Ocean Freight

20 foot or 40 foot Container load.

Organic

Organic foods are those grown, processed, and handled using only natural (non-synthetic) methods.Organic standards prohibit use of genetic engineering, ionizing radiation, any petroleum-based or sewage sludge-based fertilizers, as well as any synthetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, hormones, medicated feed, antibiotics or other chemicals.

Papain

Meat tenderizer. Enzyme extracted from papaya. Biggest supplier is India.

Pasteurization

Process that kills potentially harmful microorganisms by heating to a specified temperature for a specific amount of time.

ppm

Parts Per Million. Unit of measure used to express components present in very small quantities, for example, SO2.

Pulp

Non-water-soluble substance.

Reefer

Refrigerated container.A “chilled” reefer is usually temperature-controlled to be below 40° Fahrenheit, while a “frozen” reefer is kept below 0° Fahrenheit.

Single Strength

Best quality fruit juice or puree. Fresh-squeezed rather than concentrated.

SO2

Sulfur Dioxide. Sulfiting agent used to preserve fruit. Some people, especially asthmatics, are allergic to it. FDA mandates labeling of all foods containing more than 10 ppm of sulfiting agents.

Soluble

Easily dissolved in a solvent.

Spray-Dried

Method of creating a powder by spraying its solution into extremely hot air.

Sublimation

Process of changing from ice to vapor without changing first to liquid.

Tropical

Coming from the region of earth located on either side of the equator between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. This area has a hot and humid climate.

Tote

Approximately 200-325 gallon load held as one unit. This is the cheapest way to ship.

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture