Fruit Industry Terms


Method of processing which kills all microorganisms. Sterile product is packed in a sterile package in sterile environment. Aseptic product is microbiologically stable. Freezing is not necessary for aseptic products, except to maintain color and flavor.


A molecule that neutralizes free radicals, which are a cellular by-product of metabolism that is believed to contribute to aging. Antioxidants have been shown to prevent numerous diseases such as cancers and heart disease. One very potent family of antioxidants is called polyphenols and is found in a variety of fruits and vegetables. Many berries are especially high in this.


Water soluble pigments found only in plants. Over 500 different types are believed to exist, ranging in color from red to blue. Anthocyanins act as powerful antioxidants, helping to protect plants from UV damage. Antioxidant-anthocyanins have gained attention recently with many reports published on the benefits of consuming red wine and fruits such as pomegranate.

BIB Bag-in-Box.

Used to describe the sugar concentration of a fruit puree or juice. It is the percent of sugar (dextrose) or percent of soluble solids. Measured at 20° Celsius, using a refractometer. Soluble components with refractive indexes (such as citric acid) affect accuracy.


Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. A division of the FDA.


A substance that initiates an event, but is not changed by the event.


Process which removes water, usually through evaporation.

Deciduous Fruit

Fruit that comes from trees or plants that shed their leaves or other foliage seasonally. Examples include apple and peach.


Same as drying. Process of removing water, usually with heat or through osmosis. 


Approximately 55 gallon barrel, generally containing 51-55 gallons. 


A complex protein, which is produced by a cell. Enzymes are biological catalysts.


Component of fruit juice that boils at lower than 212°F. This contains aromatic/fragrant compounds including alcohol.

Essential Oil

Also called ethereal oil or volatile oil. Oils obtained from various parts of a plant.

Extract The product resulting from extraction.

Process of removing part of a product by using chemical or mechanical means, such as distillation, evaporation, or pressure.

FDA Food and Drug Administration.

Method of preservation, which maintains more flavor than other methods. Product is rapidly frozen, and then all water is removed through sublimation by drying in a vacuum.

GMO Genetically Modified Organism.
HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. System used to ensure food safety.


Individually Quick Frozen. Method of freezing product, which allows product to maintain maximum amount of flavor and shape. Pieces are frozen while separated, resulting in a free-flow product rather than a block of frozen product.


Food prepared in a way that fulfills the requirements of Jewish law.

Less Than Load. Term for shipping a small amount of product that does not fill an entire truck-load. 


Also called a truckload or container load.It is the amount of product that will fit in one truckload or ocean freight container. This is usually 800-850 cartons based upon either weight or volume or 70- 80 drums (barrels) at approximately 55 gallons each.


Not-From-Concentrate. A single-strength product that has never been concentrated. The lack of heat in processing helps to maintain the essences and oils of the fruit for better flavor and nutrition.


National Organic Program. Program created by the USDA to establish national organic standards including standards for growing, producing, importing and exporting products. They accredit organizations to inspect farms, producers, and handlers for organic certification. Foreign companies can also receive accreditation from the NOP if they meet all requirements.

NOS National Organic Standards. These standards were developed by the NOP and implemented in 2002 under the authority of the U.S. Congress. The standards state that in order for a product to be labeled as organic, all parties who handle the product must be certified through the NOP.

Ocean Freight

20 foot or 40 foot Container load.


Organic foods are those grown, processed, and handled using only natural (non-synthetic) methods.Organic standards prohibit use of genetic engineering, ionizing radiation, any petroleum-based or sewage sludge-based fertilizers, as well as any synthetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, hormones, medicated feed, antibiotics or other chemicals.


Meat tenderizer. Enzyme extracted from papaya. Biggest supplier is India.


Process that kills potentially harmful microorganisms by heating to a specified temperature for a specific amount of time.


Parts Per Million. Unit of measure used to express components present in very small quantities, for example, SO2.


Non-water-soluble substance.


Refrigerated container. A “chilled” reefer is usually temperature-controlled to be below 40° Fahrenheit, while a “frozen” reefer is kept below 0° Fahrenheit.

Single Strength

Best quality fruit juice or puree. Fresh-squeezed rather than concentrated.


Sulfur Dioxide. Sulfiting agent used to preserve fruit. Some people, especially asthmatics, are allergic to it. FDA mandates labeling of all foods containing more than 10 ppm of sulfiting agents.


Easily dissolved in a solvent.


Method of creating a powder by spraying its solution into extremely hot air.


Process of changing from ice to vapor without changing first to liquid.


Coming from the region of earth located on either side of the equator between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. This area has a hot and humid climate.


Approximately 200-325 gallon load held as one unit. Usually the cheapest way to ship.


United States Department of Agriculture